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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-26

The utilization of diagnostic ultrasound in the evaluation of the kidneys in HIV-associated nephropathy

1 Department of Radiology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Gombe, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria
3 Department of Radiology, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
4 Deparment of Radiology, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria
5 Department of Radiology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Philip Oluleke Ibinaiye
Department of Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna State
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DOI: 10.4103/1115-1474.146142

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Aim: To evaluate the renal sizes and echogenicity pattern in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy and to correlate renal echogenicity with serum creatinine levels and proteinuria. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 consecutively confirmed HIV- seropositive patients aged between 19 and 65 years (Mean ± SD: 35 ± 10.79) comprising 32 males and 68 females with clinical and laboratory features of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) was conducted at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, between April 2011 and September 2012. The subjects were evaluated with renal ultrasound scan and the observed abnormalities were recorded. Serum creatinine levels and CD4 + lymphocyte counts were also obtained for all the patients. Proteinuria was established by dipstick method. Results: Of the 100 cases studied, ultrasound showed enlarged kidneys in 28 patients (28%) and abnormal echogenicity was present in 192 kidneys (96%). 100 kidneys (50%) were globular, 160 kidneys (80%) had decreased corticomedullary definition, 90 kidneys (45%) had decreased renal sinus fat and 80 kidneys (40%) had heterogenous renal parenchymal patterns. A high serum creatinine level, increased degree of proteinuria, lower CD4 counts, reproductive age group and black race were associated with HIVAN. Conclusion: The severity of HIVAN as indicated by raised serum creatinine level and proteinuria correlated positively with the degree of renal echogenicity.

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