|LETTER TO EDITOR
|Year : 2016 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 52-53
The “CT Comma Sign” in concurrent extradural and hyperacute subdural hematomas is revisited
Amit Agrawal1, Kishor V Hegde2, V Umamaheswara Reddy2
1 Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 Department of Radiology, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||6-Jan-2016|
Department of Neurosurgery, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Chinthareddypalem, Nellore - 524 003, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
|How to cite this article:|
Agrawal A, Hegde KV, Reddy V U. The “CT Comma Sign” in concurrent extradural and hyperacute subdural hematomas is revisited. West Afr J Radiol 2016;23:52-3
|How to cite this URL:|
Agrawal A, Hegde KV, Reddy V U. The “CT Comma Sign” in concurrent extradural and hyperacute subdural hematomas is revisited. West Afr J Radiol [serial online] 2016 [cited 2023 Sep 24];23:52-3. Available from: https://www.wajradiology.org/text.asp?2016/23/1/52/155748
Extradual hematoma (EDH) is the collection of blood between the inner skull table and dura, and appears as a biconvex-lens shape on imaging., In comparison to EDH, the subdural hematoma (SDH) is a collection of blood between the dura and arachnoid membrane and it has a biconcave-lens shape on imaging., In the acute stage, most of these hematomas present as hyperdense lesions on computerized tomography (CT) images.,,, In rare circumstances, a patient can have acute extradural hematoma and subdural hematoma adjacent to each other on the same side with a characteristic imaging appearance.,
A 26-year-old male patient sustained head injury in a road traffic accident and presented 6 hours after to the emergency department. The patient was unconscious from the time of injury and had multiple episodes of vomiting. There was no history of seizures or nasal/ear bleeds. His general and systemic examination was unremarkable. Neurologically, he had altered sensorium [Glasgow coma score (GCS)-E1V2M5]. Pupils were bilaterally equal and reactive to light. He moved all four limbs normally. He had multiple abrasions over face and scalp.
The non-contrast CT scan of the brain with bone windows showed a biconcave mild hyperdense collection extending all over the right fronto-temporo-parietal region and a hyperdense biconvex lesion just behind this collection over the right parieto-occipital region with associated small bi-frontal polar contusions [Figure 1]. There was significant mass effect and midline shift, but no fracture was noted. Blood investigations including coagulation profile were normal. The patient underwent right fronto-temporo-parietal craniotomy.
|Figure 1: CT scan brain showing convaco-convex mild hyperdense collection extending all over the right fronto-temporo-parietal region and a hyperdense biconvex lesion over right parieto-occipital region and associated small bifrontal polar contusions (inset please note “CT comma sign”), right image showing schematic representation of the “CT coma sign” (upper arrow depicting SDH and lower arrow depicting EDH)|
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At surgery, there was an extradural hematoma in the parieto-occipital region that was evacuated. The dura was tense and non-pulsatile. After the dura was opened, there was another hemorrhagic collection that was mixed with clots and CSF which was also evacuated. Following evacuation, the brain was lax and pulsatile. After achieving hemostasis, the wound was closed in layers. The patient improved significantly after surgery and the GCS was E4V4M6. Follow-up images showed complete evacuation of the hematomas [Figure 2]. There were no focal deficits.
There are only few case reports in the literature where concurrent extradural and SDHs have been reported.,,, The underlying mechanisms described for these lesions are underlying fracture and associated extradural hematoma (coup injury) and acute SDH may be the manifestation of contrecoup injury (as we saw in the present case).,, Monsalve  has discussed the appearance of such lesions in details and described the typical appearance as “CT comma sign.” We need to remember that a classical “CT comma sign” will appear only when there is a left-sided lesion (EDH in the frontal region and SDH is posterior to the EDH); however, if the skull is imagined as a circle, then the comma rotates in a circle [Figure 1]. The author further suggested that when there is a finding of the “CT comma sign” the neurosurgeons and radiologists should be cautious as there may be two extra-axial hemorrhagic lesions, that is, extradural and SDHs. Surgical evacuation is the treatment of choice with good outcome for larger hematomas.,,,, The outcome is determined by the neurological status at the time of presentation, size of hematoma and associated underlying brain injury (e.g. PCA infarct, etc.).,,,,
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2]
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